Alphabet

Dinak'i (Upper Kuskokwim Athabascan) Alphabet

a dał crane This vowel is similar to the English vowel in "hat", "sat", and "mat". Low front close unrounded vocoid.
ch ts'och plate Similar to the ch in "church". Voiceless alveopalatal aspirated grooved affricate.
chon rain
ch' łech’a dog Pronounced like ch with the glottis opening and closing simultaneously. Voiceless alveopalatal glottalized grooved affricate.
d dał crane Similar to the d in "dog" or "doll". Voiceless unaspirated alveolar stop.
dl dlot’ water plants Similar to the ttle in "bottle" or "battle". Voiceless unaspirated alveolar lateral affricate.
dr drodeya sheep Similar to the dr in "drop" (but representing one sound rather than a combination of two consonants, as in English). Voiceless unaspirated alveolar retroflexed grooved affricate.
dz dzedza bird Similar to the ds in "buds" (but representing one sound rather than a combination of two consonants). Voiceless unaspirated alveolar affricate.
e mes swing Similar to the e in “he”, “me”, and “be.” High front close unrounded vocoid.
g guga’ baby Similar to the g in “go” and “bag”. Voiceless unaspirated velar stop.
gh t’ighis cottonwood tree Made in the position of a g but allowing the air to escape from the larynx as in v and z. Voiced velar fricative.
h huh Canada Goose Made in the position of the k but allowing the air to escape from the lungs as in f and s. Voiceless velar fricative.
ha grease
i is fish trap Pronounced between the i in “sit” and the a in “above”. High front open unrounded vocoid to mid-central close unrounded vocoid.
j jił cooking stick Similar to the j in “job”. Voiceless aspirated alveopalatal affricate.
k konsa ground squirrel Pronounced like the k in “kill”. Voiceless velar stop.
k’ k’o’ arrow Pronounced like the k but with the glottis opening and closing simultaneously. Voiceless glottalized velar stop.
l milo’ hand Pronounced like the l in “lick”. Voiced lateral fricative.
m minh lake Pronounced like the m in “man”. Voiced bilabial nasal.
n nune porcupine Pronounced like the n in “no”. Voiced alveolar nasal.
n' k’un’ fish eggs Pronounced like an n but cut off by closing the glottis. Voiced alveolar glottalized nasal.
nh ts’inh bone Pronounced in the same position as the n but without moving the vocal cords. When pronounced by itself there is no sound except that of air escaping through the nose. Voiceless alveolar nasal.
o osh snowshoes Similar to the o in “jot” or “pot”. Low back rounded vocoid.
s suje marten Pronounced like the s in “saw”. Voiceless alveolar grooved fricative.
sh osh showshoes Pronounced like the sh in “sheep”. Voiceless alveopalatal grooved fricative.
sr sruh robin Sounds like the s and r pronounced together similar to the shr in “shrew” (but representing one sound rather than a combination of two consonants as in English) Voiceless alveolar retroflexed fricative.
t tomo swan Pronounced like the t in “toy” and “to”. Voiceless aspirated alveolar stop.
tr dotron’ raven Sounds like t and r pronounced at the same time. Similar to the tr in “tree”. Voiceless aspirated alveolar retroflexed grooved affricate.
tr’ tr’esh boat Sounds like the t and r pronounced at the same time with the glottis opening and closing simultaneously. Voiceless alveolar retroflexed glottalized grooved affricate.
ts tso’ beaver Sounds like a t and s pronounced at the same time, similar to ts in “hats” (but representing one sound rather that a combination of two consonants as in English.) Voiceless alveolar grooved affricate.
ts’ ts’inh bone Sounds like a t and s pronounced together with the glottis opening and closing simultaneously. No comparable sound in English. Voiceless alveolar glottalized grooved affricate.
hwtł sled Sounds like t and ł pronounced together. No comparable sound in English. Voiceless aspirated alveolar lateral affricate.
tł’ tł’uł rope Pronounced like the tł with the glottis opening and closing simultaneously. No comparable sound in English. Voiceless alveolar glottalized lateral affricate.
t’ ch’it’on’ leaf Pronounced like the t but with the glottis opening and closing simultaneously. Voiceless alveolar glottalized stop.
u tu water Similar to the u in “flu”. High back close rounded vocoid.
w gwh rabbit Similar to the u in “put” and the oo in “foot”. High central close rounded vocoid.
y yode eagle Pronounced like the y in “yes”. High front close unrounded nonsyllabic vocoid.
y’ k’wy’ willow Pronounced like the y but cut off by closing the glottis. High front close unrounded glottalized nonsyllabic vocoid.
z ch’izis hide skin Pronounced like the z in “zoo”. Voiced alveolar grooved fricative.
zr jezra camp robber Sounds like z and r pronounced at the same time. No comparable sound in English. Voiced alveolar retroflexed grooved fricative.
ł łił fish hook Resembles the l in “cleave”. Voiceless lateral fricative.
tso’ beaver Made by closing the glottis in the throat. This is what takes place between the two syllables in “oh-oh”. Glottal stop.